TED Talk: Listening & Comprehension

“The Neurons That Shaped Civilization” – Vilayanur Ramachandran,  PhD.


1) Dictation Exercise

2) Listening & Comprehension Test – Teacher’s Version



I’d like to talk to you today about the human brain, which is what we do research on at the University of California. Just think about this problem for a second. Here is a lump of flesh, about three pounds, which you can hold in the palm of your hand. But it can contemplate the vastness of interstellar space. It can contemplate the meaning of infinity, ask questions about the meaning of its own existence, about the nature of God.

And this is truly the most amazing thing in the world. It’s the greatest mystery confronting human beings: How does this all come about? Well, the brain, as you know, is made up of neurons. We’re looking at neurons here. There are 100 billion neurons in the adult human brain. And each neuron makes something like 1,000 to 10,000 contacts with other neurons in the brain. And based on this, people have calculated that the number of permutations and combinations of brain activity exceeds the number of elementary particles in the universe.

So, how do you go about studying the brain? One approach is to look at patients who had lesions in different part of the brain, and study changes in their behavior. This is what I spoke about in the last TED. Today I’ll talk about a different approach, which is to put electrodes in different parts of the brain, and actually record the activity of individual nerve cells in the brain. Sort of eavesdrop on the activity of nerve cells in the brain.

Now, one recent discovery that has been made by researchers in Italy, in Parma, by Giacomo Rizzolatti and his colleagues, is a group of neurons called mirror neurons, which are on the front of the brain in the frontal lobes. Now, it turns out there are neurons which are called ordinary motor command neurons in the front of the brain, which have been known for over 50 years. These neurons will fire when a person performs a specific action. For example, if I do that, and reach and grab an apple, a motor command neuron in the front of my brain will fire. If I reach out and pull an object, another neuron will fire, commanding me to pull that object. These are called motor command neurons that have been known for a long time.

But what Rizzolatti found was a subset of these neurons, maybe about 20 percent of them, will also fire when I’m looking at somebody else performing the same action. So, here is a neuron that fires when I reach and grab something, but it also fires when I watch Joe reaching and grabbing something. And this is truly astonishing. Because it’s as though this neuron is adopting the other person’s point of view. It’s almost as though it’s performing a virtual reality simulation of the other person’s action.

Now, what is the significance of these mirror neurons? For one thing they must be involved in things like imitation and emulation. Because to imitate a complex act requires my brain to adopt the other person’s point of view. So, this is important for imitation and emulation. Well, why is that important? Well, let’s take a look at the next slide. So, how do you do imitation? Why is imitation important? Mirror neurons and imitation, emulation.

Now, let’s look at culture, the phenomenon of human culture. If you go back in time about [75,000] to 100,000 years ago, let’s look at human evolution, it turns out that something very important happened around 75,000 years ago. And that is, there is a sudden emergence and rapid spread of a number of skills that are unique to human beings like tool use, the use of fire, the use of shelters, and, of course, language, and the ability to read somebody else’s mind and interpret that person’s behavior. All of that happened relatively quickly.

Even though the human brain had achieved its present size almost three or four hundred thousand years ago, 100,000 years ago all of this happened very, very quickly. And I claim that what happened was the sudden emergence of a sophisticated mirror neuron system, which allowed you to emulate and imitate other people’s actions. So that when there was a sudden accidental discovery by one member of the group, say the use of fire, or a particular type of tool, instead of dying out, this spread rapidly, horizontally across the population, or was transmitted vertically, down the generations.

So, this made evolution suddenly Lamarckian, instead of Darwinian. Darwinian evolution is slow; it takes hundreds of thousands of years. A polar bear, to evolve a coat, will take thousands of generations, maybe 100,000 years. A human being, a child, can just watch its parent kill another polar bear, and skin it and put the skin on its body, fur on the body, and learn it in one step. What the polar bear took 100,000 years to learn, it can learn in five minutes, maybe 10 minutes. And then once it’s learned this it spreads in geometric proportion across a population.

This is the basis. The imitation of complex skills is what we call culture and is the basis of civilization. Now there is another kind of mirror neuron, which is involved in something quite different. And that is, there are mirror neurons, just as there are mirror neurons for action, there are mirror neurons for touch. In other words, if somebody touches me, my hand, neuron in the somatosensory cortex in the sensory region of the brain fires. But the same neuron, in some cases, will fire when I simply watch another person being touched. So, it’s empathizing the other person being touched.

So, most of them will fire when I’m touched in different locations. Different neurons for different locations. But a subset of them will fire even when I watch somebody else being touched in the same location. So, here again you have neurons which are enrolled in empathy. Now, the question then arises: If I simply watch another person being touched, why do I not get confused and literally feel that touch sensation merely by watching somebody being touched? I mean, I empathize with that person but I don’t literally feel the touch. Well, that’s because you’ve got receptors in your skin, touch and pain receptors, going back into your brain and saying “Don’t worry, you’re not being touched. So, empathize, by all means, with the other person, but do not actually experience the touch, otherwise you’ll get confused and muddled.”

Okay, so there is a feedback signal that vetoes the signal of the mirror neuron preventing you from consciously experiencing that touch. But if you remove the arm, you simply anesthetize my arm, so you put an injection into my arm, anesthetize the brachial plexus, so the arm is numb, and there is no sensations coming in, if I now watch you being touched, I literally feel it in my hand. In other words, you have dissolved the barrier between you and other human beings. So, I call them Gandhi neurons, or empathy neurons.

And this is not in some abstract metaphorical sense. All that’s separating you from him, from the other person, is your skin. Remove the skin, you experience that person’s touch in your mind. You’ve dissolved the barrier between you and other human beings. And this, of course, is the basis of much of Eastern philosophy, and that is there is no real independent self, aloof from other human beings, inspecting the world, inspecting other people. You are, in fact, connected not just via Facebook and Internet, you’re actually quite literally connected by your neurons. And there is whole chains of neurons around this room, talking to each other. And there is no real distinctiveness of your consciousness from somebody else’s consciousness.

And this is not mumbo-jumbo philosophy. It emerges from our understanding of basic neuroscience. So, you have a patient with a phantom limb. If the arm has been removed and you have a phantom, and you watch somebody else being touched, you feel it in your phantom. Now the astonishing thing is, if you have pain in your phantom limb, you squeeze the other person’s hand, massage the other person’s hand, that relieves the pain in your phantom hand, almost as though the neuron were obtaining relief from merely watching somebody else being massaged.

So, here you have my last slide. For the longest time people have regarded science and humanities as being distinct. C.P. Snow spoke of the two cultures: science on the one hand, humanities on the other; never the twain shall meet. So, I’m saying the mirror neuron system underlies the interface allowing you to rethink about issues like consciousness, representation of self, what separates you from other human beings, what allows you to empathize with other human beings, and also even things like the emergence of culture and civilization, which is unique to human beings. Thank you.

Listening/Comprehension Test – Teacher’s Version

  1. What is the conceptual basis underlying this presentation?
  • That the brain is an incredibly sophisticated biological computer
  • The minds of all people are in many ways connected
  • Mirror neurons have a way of explaining empathy
  • All of the above
  1. Check all that apply. Which are capabilities of the human brain, according to Ramachandran? Contemplating the…
“vastness of interstellar space”
“the meaning of infinity”
“ask questions about the meaning of its own existence”
“about the nature of God”
“being able to magically move objects like with psychokinesis”
  1. What is a neuron?
  • An extremely unintelligent person
  • A part of the brain involved in thought formation and transmission
  • It is made up of axons, dendrites and terminal buttons
  • Both B and C
  1. In the introduction the speaker, Vilayanur Ramachandran, speaks on how the humans contemplate highly abstract matters such as “the vastness of interstellar space” and “the meaning of infinity.” What is the purpose of this?
  • To make the brain seem like something highly complex and sophisticated
  • Confuse listeners, so that they listen to him more carefully
  • In the hopes of illustrating the possibilities of human thought
  • Both A and C
  1. How many neurons are there in the adult human brain?
  • ten thousand (10,000)
  • one hundred million (100,000,000)
  • one hundred billion (100,000,000,000)
  • ten trillion (10,000,000,000,000)
  1. For each of these neurons, how many possible connections are there on average?
  • One to ten (1-10)
  • One hundred to one thousand (100-1,000)
  • One thousand to ten thousand (1,000-10,000)
  • The number of connections is infinite
  1. When watching another individual perform an act, a subset of the same neurons in the brain fire as if you yourself were engaged in the same activity. About what percent of the neurons fire or are used?
  • 10 percent
  • 20 percent
  • 50 percent
  • 80 percent
  1. What are two ways to understand activity in the brain specifically mentioned in the presentation?
  • Computer tomography and cerebral angiograms
  • Psychical readings and Vulcan brain unions
  • Studying the behavior of individuals with brain lesions and electrode stimulation
  • Lobotomies and pharmaceutical drug use
  1. A comparison is made between Lamarckian and Darwinian evolution. What is the difference? You may only Choose one answer for each “Trait or Activity.”
Trait or Activity Darwinian Lamarkian
New skills can be learned in minutes
Takes place over many generations
Learning how to tell a joke
  1. What unique skills that emerged with the introduction of a mirror neuron system was NOT mentioned in the TED video?
  • Use of Shelter
  • Control of Fire
  • Creation of Complex Language
  • Making Weapons
  1. What does Ramachandran argue indirectly? Without mirror neurons, which would not have likely occurred?
  • Civilization
  • Evolution
  • Culture
  • Both A and C
  1. Why is Eastern philosophy mentioned in his explanation of the dissolution of the barrier between you and human beings?
  • It states that there is no real independent self
  • He states that such ideas originated in Asia
  • Eastern philosophy sees all people as the same
  • None of the above
  1. How can pain be relieved in a phantom limb?
  • It cannot as phantom limbs, by definition, do not exist
  • The phantom limb must be amputated or cut off
  • By anesthetizing or numbing the arm
  • Squeezing or massaging another individual’s hand
  1. When approximately did the brain reach its present size?
  • One hundred thousand years ago
  • One or two million years ago
  • Three or four-hundred thousand years ago
  • At adulthood
  1. Match the functions of motor command neurons.
Lamarkian Darwinian
_____ _____
_____ _____

Lamarkian: Transmittal of traits in a single generation

Darwianin: Transmittal of traits overtime through many genetically

  • Learning how to skin the fur of a polar bear
  • A polar bear growing a thicker coat of fur
  • Developing larger eyes and visual sensory organs to see in low light environments
  • Wearing hats or sunglasses to shield the eye from the sun
  1. Order the lines from the speech from first to last, numbering them one (1) to four (4).
“Now, one recent discovery that has been made by researchers in Italy, in Parma, by Giacomo Rizzolatti and his colleagues, is a group of neurons called mirror neurons, which are on the front of the brain in the frontal lobes.”
“But what Rizzolatti found was a subset of these neurons, maybe about 20 percent of them, will also fire when I’m looking at somebody else performing the same action.”
“For the longest time people have regarded science and humanities as being distinct.”
“Well, the brain, as you know, is made up of neurons.”
  1. Based on the theories presented, what can be learned using our mirror neuron system? Check all that apply.
Answer Choices
How to grow claws on you hands and feet
Tying   your shoes
Copying a facial expression
Learning how to walk
  1. What is the importance of adopting another person’s perspective?
  • Learning complex ideas and tasks requires you to think like the other person
  • It allows us to understand why someone would feel a certain way
  • It makes learning a concept much faster
  • All the above
  1. Ramachandran says that we are all connected by our neurons. Our brains are not physically connected to each other. What does he mean by this? He compares this to Facebook and the Internet. Check only one Yes/No response for each choice.
Yes No Choice
That we can understand someone else’s perspective as if it were our own
Our mirror neurons allow us to copy someone else
That we are telepathic and can read someone’s thoughts word for word
That this connection we all have is based on our understanding of our speech and actions
  1. The major divide in academia is between the Sciences and Humanities. How can mirror neurons show that the two are not dissimilar and not separate?
  • What you know and feel is based on biological processes
  • It shows that human interaction is based on scientific processes that allow us to copy and empathize with other behavior
  • All the above
  • None of the above

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